UFO – The Foundational Ontology

Created by Giancarlo Guizzardi in his Ph.D. thesis, UFO (Unified Foundational Ontology) unifies several foundational ontologies and has been developed with the purpose of providing foundations for conceptual modeling based on philosophically well-founded principles as well as capturing the ontological distinctions underlying human cognition and common sense. It has been developed by adapting and extending a number of theories coming from the areas of formal ontology in philosophy, linguistics, philosophical logics and cognitive science, and building in theworks of various classical and contemporary authors fromthese disciplines such as Husserl, Kripke, Strawson, Quine, Goodman, Chisholm, Gardenfors, Simons, Wiggins, Montague, Lowe, Varzi, Bunge, among many others.


Created by Julio Cesar Nardi in his Ph.D. thesis, UFO-S is a commitment-based service ontology whose conceptualization is based on the establishment and fulfillment of commitments and claims between service participants (service providers and service customers) along the service life cycle. UFO-S focus on the three main phases of the service life cycle, namely: service offer, service negotiation, and service delivery.


OntoUML is a pattern-based and ontologically well-founded version of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Its meta-model has been designed in compliance with the ontological distinctions of a well-grounded theory, named the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO). OntoUML includes a system of interrelated axiomatic theories, providing modeling foundations for all Conceptual Modeling major concepts, including theories for: types and taxonomic structures (including roles), part-whole relations, events, formal and material relations, dependent (weak) entities, attributes and attribute value and measurement spaces (roughly datatypes).